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Bead wire application

Bead wire is widely used in rubber industry:

  • for the production of bead rings of tires;
  • reinforcement of passenger cars, trucks and light truck tires to give necessary rigidity to tire beads;
  • reinforcing steel cord conveyor belts and high-pressure hoses.

Bead wire is widely used for reinforcement of cars, trucks, light truck tires, to give the necessary rigidity to tire beads.

The main reinforcing element of the bead part of tires is a bead ring made of steel wire coated with bronze to provide chemical bond with rubber. Bead wire contains of fiber stands disposed so as to provide both high strength and certain degree of flexibility needed for mounting and dismounting tires. Carcass layers are wrapped around the bead wire fixing carcass layers and holds the assembly on the wheel rim, thereby preventing the tire from rolling or sliding, providing road performance of the tire.

Bead wire for bias and bias-belted tires is used on both sides of the tire. In cast tires bead wire is used for fixing the tire to the rim.

tyre bead wire in the automotive industry tyre bead wire

Technological process of bead wire manufacturing

Ø1.55 mm~Ø1.65 mm

Wire Rod
Ø5.5~Ø6.5 mm
Mechanical descaling, electrolytic etching,
boraxing, drawing up to Ø1.55~Ø1.65 mm
Heat treatment, rinsing,
wire bronzing line
Checking, packaging
and storage

Ø0.78 mm~Ø0.96 mm

Wire Rod
Ø0.78~Ø0.96 mm
Mechanical descaling, electrolytic
etching, boraxing, drawing up to Ø2.80 mm
Heat treatment, rinsing,
wire bronzing line
Drawing up to
Ø0.78~Ø0.96 mm
Heat treatment, rinsing,
wire bronzing line
Checking, packaging
and storage


Productivity8000 tons/ year
Bead Wire RangeØ1.55 mm~Ø1.65 mm and Ø0.78 mm~Ø0.96 mm
Power Consumption800 kW/h
Water consumption6 m3/h
Steam consumption2000 kg/h
Waste water typeFeSO4 waste water; CuSO4 waste water
exhaust gasvapor H2SO4
The ability of use sulfuric acid instead of hydrochloric acid.

As steel cord as bead wire are coated with an alloy that increases the strength of the connection with the tires. Special brass coatings are used almost exclusively to the steel cord and only in some cases.

Bronze coating is most common for the bead wire. Chemical formation of adhesion to brass-coated steel cord is very complex. Brass layer made of zinc and copper, and the composition gradient of the steel cord to the rubber surface are very important for this process.

Theoretically, depending on starting reactivity of the mixture brass alloy forms intermediate layers of zinc, sulphide and copper. The rates of these layers formation are determined by the initial level and durability of the connection.

Equipment for the production of bead wire

Machine name and typeQty
1.Mechanical descaling, electrolytic etching, wire boraxing line2
2.RG155-165 straight through wire drawing machine1
3.RG078-096 straight through wire drawing machine2
4.Heat treatment + acid etching, wire phosphatizing line1
5.Heat treatment + acid etching, wire bronzing line1

Required personnel (for output of 16000 tons/year)

Technological processWorking ShiftOperating PersonnelTotal
1.Wire Drawing4416
2.Hardening + acid etching4416
3.Heat treatment + chemical coating line4520
5.Total  58

Environmental Protection

When this device operated three types of polluting waste are formed: acid vapors; waste water with acid-content; waste water coming from the brass plating line.

To eliminate acid vapors indoor air pollution control system is used.

For treatment of waste water with acid-content and waste water from the brass plating line: uniformity, neutralization, aeration, sedimentation and filtration are applied. Water can be discharged after reaching standards.

Waste water
Operational processWastewater typeMaterial typeConcentration, mg/lOutput, l/hUnloading Amount, m3
Mechanical descalingAcid wasteFe350200048
Heat treatmentAcid wasteFe350360086.4
Wire Brozing LineCopper coating wastewaterCu20150036
Acid wasteFe200100024

Operational processDissolution typeMaterial typeConcentration, mg/lAmount
Mechanical descalingAcid SolutionH2SO4250Change every 2 months, total volume 8 m3
Heat treatmentAcid SolutionH2SO4250Change 1 time per month, total volume 10 m3
Borax LiquorNa2B4O7 × 10H2O170Change 1 time per month, total volume 86 m3
Wire Brozing LineAcid SolutionH2SO4250Change 1 time per 2 month, total volume 5 m3
Cooper sulphate solutionCuSO4 × 5H2O15Change 1 time per month, total volume 10 m3

Acid vapors
Operational processVapor output, m3Number of equipment linesTotal vapor volume, m3
Wire Rod Preparation200024000
Wire Patenting6000212000
Electrolytic Etching on Wire Bronzing Line300013000

The total vapor concentration is 18 mg/m3. After heat treatment and unloading, the concentration is 0.99 m3, which meets environmental standards.

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